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2 edition of Differences in the length of words and nonwords under prime influences in short-term memory found in the catalog.

Differences in the length of words and nonwords under prime influences in short-term memory

Ruben Augusto de Sousa Trancoso

Differences in the length of words and nonwords under prime influences in short-term memory

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Published by Laurentian University, Department of Psychology in Sudbury, Ont .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Statementby Ruben Augusto de Sousa Trancoso.
The Physical Object
Paginationii, 35 l. :
Number of Pages35
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20757606M

The production effect (better memory for words read aloud than words read silently) and the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures than words) both improve item memory in a picture naming task (Fawcett, J. M., Quinlan, C. K., & Taylor, T. L. (). increased short-term memory demands for the less word-like stimuli due to the absence of phonological or semantic information. Another example found that although vOT activation is generally greater for pictures than words (Price and Devlin, ), this too depends on the processing demands of the task. In a study. // Number of entries found % @unpublished{McCusker, author = {McCusker, L. M.}, title = {{\em Some determinants of word recognition: Frequency}. Digit monitoring N-Back Measuring Working Memory Switching One challenge to understanding the role of working Plus/Minus Switching memory in language and communication is the multi- Letter-Letter Switching plicity of tests and assessments used to measure indi- Local-Global Switching vidual differences in working memory.5/5(1).


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Differences in the length of words and nonwords under prime influences in short-term memory by Ruben Augusto de Sousa Trancoso Download PDF EPUB FB2

There is convincing evidence that mental rotation, frequently used in the field of mental imagery, is accomplished by transforming a representation held in visual short-term.

As there is a strong correlation between short-term memory span (the number of items that are recalled in its correct order) and the rate at which words are. Distributed practice (also known as spaced repetition or spaced practice) is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions – over a longer period of time.

Humans and animals learn items in a list more effectively when they are studied in several sessions spread out over a long period of time, rather than studied repeatedly in a short period.

We carried out a series of experiments on verbal short-term memory for lists of words. In the first experiment, participants were tested via immediate serial recall, and word frequency and list set size were manipulated.

With closed lists, the same set of items was repeatedly sampled, and with open lists, no item was presented more than by: 4. The transposed letter effect was not significant in the later measures, pMCMC >, but was in the right direction.

In go-past and total time, the size of the transposed letter effect was actually larger for prefixed words (38 ms for go-past, 47 ms for total time) than for non-prefixed words (17 ms for go-past, 11 ms for total time).Cited by: The performance of individuals with Williams syndrome and their associated controls on the short and long word conditions of the short-term memory and articulation tasks are shown in Table short-term memory data were subjected to a two factor analysis of covariance, with group and word length as independent and repeated measures, respectively, and with verbal mental Cited by: Understanding Normal and Impaired Reading Development First, however, the group of children with dyslexia was split into a regular dyslexic group, with a mean lag in reading ability of 2 years, and a dyslexic group, with more severe reading disabilities, having a mean lag of 3 years.

Both groups were matched for age and verbal by: Generation effect in short-term verbal and visuospatial memory: Comparisons between dementia of frontal lobe type: Cortex Vol 32(2) JunSteffens, M.

C., & Erdfelder, E. Determinants of positive and negative generation effects in free recall: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology.

Cambridge Core - Differences in the length of words and nonwords under prime influences in short-term memory book and Neurolinguistics - South and Southeast Asian Psycholinguistics - edited by Heather Winskel.

The model described consists of sets of orthographic and phonological units and an interlevel of hidden units. Weights on connections between units were modified during a training phase using the back-propagation learning algorithm.

The model simulates many aspects of human performance, including (a) differences between words in terms of processing difficulty, (b) Cited by: In 8 recognition experiments, we investigated the production effect—the fact that producing a word aloud during study, relative to simply reading a word silently, improves explicit memory.

Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed the effect to be restricted to within-subject, mixed-list designs in which some individual words are spoken aloud at by:   In the most ambitious study of this type, Seymour, Aro, and Erskine () compared children’s reading aloud of simple words and nonwords across 13 European languages at the end of the first year of schooling (including nonwords in addition to words in studies of reading acquisition is important, given that they permit an assessment of a Cited by:   All children had received their implant before their fourth birthday, and the mean age at implantation in the sample was 1 year 9 months (0 years 7 months to 3 years 9 months, SD = 12 months).

Five of the 13 children had received their implants before 12 months of age and eight of the 13 children had received their implants before 24 months of by: Implicit Memory is Episodic Memory.

Implicit memory refers to the effect of a past event on experience, thought, or action in the absence of (or independent of) conscious recollection of that event.

Because the definition of implicit memory refers to priming and other effects attributable to a past event, it should be clear that implicit memory, so defined, is a phenomenon of episodic. This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the Cited by: The first eight editions of An Introduction to Language succeeded, with the help of dedicated teachers, in introducing the nature of human language to tens of thousands of students.

This is a book that students enjoy and understand and that professors find effective and thorough. Full text of "Cognitive Psycholgy A Students Guide Eysenck" See other formats. -language influences culture perspective/how reality is perceived -[more words you know about topic; more ideas you can have about topic]-USA number of words for color vs natives who use 2 words to describe colors should have different perspectives of colors-->turns out they still have similar perspectives; thus Whorf hypothesis incorrect (Dr.

Dufau et al. () demonstrated that this model could capture all the benchmark phenomena handled by the Drift Diffusion model, and furthermore provided the first simulation of mean item RT for both words and nonwords in the English Lexicon Project (ELP) database (Balota et al., ), capturing 39% of the variance in the RTs of a selection of Cited by: However, verbal short-term memory (STM) has not yet been systematically investigated.

We explored verbal STM abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either chronological age or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing STM for serial order and item information. Full text of "The Study of Dyslexia [electronic resource]" See other formats.

In 9 experiments, a target word (e.g., frog) was named following an associate ({TOAD}), or a word (e.g., {TOWED}) or nonword (e.g., {TODE}) homophonic with the associate. At brief (e.g., 50 msec) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the 3 primes produced equal associative priming.

At a long SOA ( msec), priming by {TOAD} was matched by {TODE} but not by {TOWED}. Why limit the availability of a prime-word in the study of automatic contextual facilitation?.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 10, Issue. 04, p. Preliminary letter identification in the perception of words and nonwords. Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory. The stimulus list was constructed from a factorial design involving the presence of 4 different types of words (regular words with simple graphemes, with complex graphemes, with contextual graphemes, and irregular words with exceptional graphemes), 2 levels of word frequency (high versus low), and 2 levels of word length (4 versus 8 letters).

Publication date: June Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume Author(s): C.J. Brainerd, K. Nakamura, Y.A. MurtazaAbstractComplementarity is a paradoxical phenomenon in which memory for incompatible reality states (e.g., old vs. new) violates basic logical constraints: Subjects remember certain groups of items as belonging to both of two incompatible states at.

USA1 US14/, USA USA1 US A1 US A1 US A1 US A US A US A US A1 US A1 US A1 Authority US United States Prior art keywords alphabetic array letter letters selected Prior art date.

In a study by Westbury (), participants performed a lexical decision task on words and nonwords presented within curvy and spiky frames. Within each lexical category (word and nonword), some stimuli contained only stop consonants (e.g.

toad and kide), some stimuli contained only continuous (e.g. moon and lole), and some stimuli that. Working memory 41 The multicomponent model 44 Imagery and the visuo-spatial sketchpad 49 The central executive 53 The episodic buffer 56 Individual differences in working memory 58 Theories of working memory 60 The neuroscience of working memory 63 Summary 67 Further reading 68 4.

Method: The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27 adolescents of same chronological age (CA) and 27 of matched reading level (RL) on measures of literacy and cognitive abilities: Chinese word reading, one-minute reading, reading comprehension, spelling, verbal short-term memory, rapid.

Ability to hear words correctly even under conditions of distortion or loud background noise. Memory for Sound Patterns (UM). Ability to retain (on a short-term basis) auditory events such as tones, tonal patterns, and voices. Maintaining and Judging Rhythm (U8).

Ability to recognize and maintain a musical beat. In Experiment 3, we compare high-frequency nonwords to real words in the same frequency range, and find that infants show no preference.

Thus, at 11 months, French-learning infants recognize highly frequent sound sequences from their native language and fail to differentiate between words and nonwords among these sequences. The best-fitting model showed that trainability in lexical specificity partially mediated between short-term memory and both vocabulary size and rhyme awareness.

These results demonstrate that individual differences in the ability to learn phonologically-similar new words are related to individual differences in vocabulary size and rhyme awareness.

Eighteen New words were selected that pa rticipants had not been expos ed to during any task. These words were similar in length and general mean ing to words that they had been exposed (e.g., hate and maim were selected as equiva lent aggression words for shout and gun).

New words were selected from Nelson, et al. () database. Sehyr, S. Z., Petrich, J., and Emmorey, K. () Fingerspelled and Printed Words Are Recoded into a Speech-based Code in Short-term Memory.

Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 22 (1). Additionally, there are differ- ent types of memory—short-term memory, long-term memory, memories about events in a person’s life, memories for facts, and so on—all of which activate different, and sometimes partially overlapping, areas of the brain.

Four additional rare words were chosen by the experimenters in order to permit words to be balanced for frequency and length across conditions. The targets were common words, which were either synonyms of, related to but non-synonymous with, or unrelated to the prime. In the present study, we aimed to test whether this procedure improves the execution of a short‐term memory task in healthy adults.

Participants showed a significantly better delayed face recognition when DO were arranged. This finding suggests that the DOP can be a technique to facilitate short‐term memory performance in humans. The bilinguals were compared with 15 English-speaking monolinguals.

Participants were compared using verbal and non-verbal short-term memory and WM tests. Findings: All bilingual groups performed significantly better than the monolinguals on tests of verbal and non-verbal WM, thus supporting a bilingual advantage.

The present study examined the phonological and visual components of working memory, both singly and within a dual-task presentation, in order to investigate the central executive functioning of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

Thirteen children with SLI (age 6;1 - 9;8) were matched by age to 11 children who showed normal language development (NL).

Both. We present a computational model that does not seek to learn word forms, but instead decodes the experiences discriminated by the speech input. At the heart of this model is a discrimination learning network trained on full utterances. This network constitutes an atemporal long-term memory system.

A fixed-width short-term memory buffer projects Title: Professor of Quantitative. The lexical status effect: it takes subjects a longer time to reject nonwords that are similar to words than it does to accept words.

The nonword legality effect: responses to nonwords that are orthographically legal (e.g. SARE) are longer than those to highly disordered letter strings (e.g. RSAE) (e.g. Rubenstein et al, ).2. Retention The proof that one has been paying attention is when one is able to remember the intended stimuli.

Imagery and language play a great part here. Memory is stored in “the form of mental images or verbal descriptions.” Once it is stored, the memory can be recalled later and be replicated in one’s actions and behavior. 3.Authors: Giustolisi B, Vergallito A, Cecchetto C, Varoli E, Romero Lauro LJ Abstract We tested the possibility of enhancing natural language comprehension through the application of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for verbal short-term memory and language comprehension.